The healthcare system’s ability to manage patient flows to the right treatment at the right care delivery level (lowest efficient care level, LEON) is an important precondition for addressing the bottlenecks and cost pressure in European healthcare systems. Allowing the patient to be the basis for the healthcare structure not only ensures that the patient receives comprehensive care at the right level, but also that resources are utilized in the best possible way. One consequence of this viewpoint is the greater focus on outpatient care, seen from the patient’s perspective. This change in approach also means that substantial patient flows can in future be redirected from inpatient to outpatient care, where there are good opportunities for greater specialization and treatment of more patients to a high quality standard, as well as cost efficiency. The LEON principle can also be applied to personnel groups within companies, with efficiency improvements through an oversight of which personnel groups perform the respective tasks.